Early Christians disagreed as to whether they should eat meat, and later Christian historians have disagreed over whether Jesus was a vegetarian.[149][150][151] Various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.[152] The Council of Jerusalem in around 50 AD, recommended Christians keep following some of the Jewish food laws concerning meat. The early sect known as the Ebionites are considered to have practiced vegetarianism. Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that – as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required – a vegetarian diet may (or should) be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors".[153][154]
Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol is found in fungus (except alfalfa which is a plantae) and created from viosterol, which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot). Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2.[107] Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement according to study.[108] For example, Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable.[109] By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed[110] making it hard to discover if they have been treated without labeling. Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 micrograms,[111] or 2700 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.[112]

Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet.[100] The calcium found in broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body.[98][99][101] Though the calcium content per serving is lower in these vegetables than a glass of milk, the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher.[99][101] Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, blackstrap molasses, turnip greens, mustard greens, soybeans, tempeh, almonds, okra, dried figs, and tahini.[98][100] Though calcium can be found in Spinach, swiss chard, beans and beet greens, they are generally not considered to be a good source since the calcium binds to oxalic acid and is poorly absorbed into the body.[99] Phytic acid found in nuts, seeds, and beans may also impact calcium absorption rates.[99] See the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements for calcium needs for various ages,[99] the Vegetarian Resource Group[100] and the Vegetarian Nutrition Calcium Fact Sheet from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics[98] for more specifics on how to obtain adequate calcium intake on a vegetarian or vegan diet.
One study published in the Journal of American College of Cardiology found that “higher intake of a plant-based diet index rich in healthier plant foods is associated with substantially lower coronary heart disease risk.” (4) Another study published in 2015 in the Permanente Journal found evidence that vegetarian diets can be beneficial for significantly lowering body mass index, high obesity rates, high blood pressure, high triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and diabetes risk. (5)
Don't get me wrong — exercising at any time is good for you. But evening activity may be particularly beneficial because many people's metabolism slows down toward the end of the day. Thirty minutes of aerobic activity before dinner increases your metabolic rate and may keep it elevated for another two or three hours, even after you've stopped moving. What that means for you: You're less likely to go back for seconds or thirds. Plus, it'll help you relax post meal so you won't be tempted by stress-induced grazing that can rack up calories, quickly.
According to the United States National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin.[87] Lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements.[88][89][90][91][92] Vitamin B12 can also be obtained from fortified yeast extract products.[93]
^ Jump up to: a b OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; Webster’s Third New International Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford, 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252. The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842:
After dinner, wash all the dishes, wipe down the counters, turn out the light, and, if necessary, tape closed the cabinets and refrigerator. Late-evening eating significantly increases the overall number of calories you eat, a University of Texas study found. Learning how to stop late-night snacking can save 300 or more calories a day, or 31 pounds a year.

Basically, the effect of exercise on our weight is vastly overrated. That’s why it’s only number 15 on this list. There are other things you need to take care of first. It’s not a good idea to eat bad food, drink sugar water (so-called “sports drinks”) or be on medications which force you to exercise for hours daily just to compensate. Metaphorically that’s like digging a hole, into which you put your ladder, on which you stand and paint the basement-level windows of your house.
(On her fasting methodology, patients are allowed to eat one 500-calorie meal a day. If exercise is worked into the equation, Varady recommended saving the meal for a post-workout refuelling. The ideal meal is two chicken breasts — about 50 to 70 grams of protein — on a bed of salad and vegetables because it’s rich in protein, fibre and nutrients, she advised.)
The main advantage of the low-carb diet is that it causes you to want to eat less. Even without counting calories most overweight people eat far fewer calories on low carb. Sugar and starch may increase your hunger, while avoiding them may decrease your appetite to an adequate level. If your body wants to have an appropriate number of calories you don’t need to bother counting them. Thus: Calories count, but you don’t need to count them.
All meals are important, but breakfast is what helps you start your day on the right track. The best, heartiest breakfasts are ones that will fill you up, keep you satisfied, and stave off cravings later in the day. Aim to eat anywhere between 400 and 500 calories for your morning meal, and make sure you're including a source of lean protein plus filling fat (e.g., eggs, beans, unsweetened Greek yogurt, nuts, or nut butters) and fiber (veggies, fruit, or 100% whole grains). Starting your day with a blood sugar-stabilizing blend of nutrients will help you slim down without sacrifice.

"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari[202] and Rarionwalay,[203] etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter and cheese).[204] This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts.[200] In response to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life.[205][206] Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance: "Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?"[200] The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.[199][200]
The problem with fasting is that due to severe calorie restriction, your basal metabolic rate (BMR) will decrease. It is thought that fasting can decrease the body’s metabolism by up to 22%. This means that your metabolism will slow down and theoretically, if you were to eat the same amount of calories you did before you started fasting, immediately on the stopping the fast, you would put on weight – not “water weight”, but fat. If this were to happen, you would end up with a higher body fat percentage than when you started.
The first discovered written use of the term "vegetarian" originated in 1839 and refers to what was previously described as a vegetable regimen or diet, for example in print in 1811.[12] Modern dictionaries based on scientific linguistic principles have always explained its origin as an irregular compound of vegetable (in the adjectival sense of any plant still common today)[13] and the suffix -arian (in the sense of "supporter, believer" as in humanitarian), but there were amateur attempts, even by a Latin scholar not trained in linguistics, to find other origins of the word.[14] The term was popularized with the foundation of the Vegetarian Society in Manchester in 1847,[15] although it may have appeared in print before 1847.[15][16][17] The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott House—a school on the north side of Ham Common, London—which was opened in July 1838 by James Pierrepont Greaves.[16][17][18] From 1841, it was known as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College, from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet entitled The Healthian, which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".[16] 

Omega-3 fatty acids are good fats that may help lower blood pressure, improve heart health, and stave off age-related dementia. There are two kinds. Most of the health benefits are linked to docosahexaenioc acid (DHA), found mainly in fatty fish, as well as fortified foods like eggs. If you don't eat either of these foods, you might want to consider a supplement. Pumpkin seeds, flaxseeds, walnuts, and canola oil are all good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid beneficial for heart health.
Similarly, children under age 5 who are reared on vegetarian and vegan diets can suffer impaired growth. That's because of the potential for a vitamin B12 deficiency, which can also result in anemia and vitamin D deficiency which can cause rickets. DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid found mostly in fish, is important for optimal brain development the first 2 years of life. Consult a registered dietitian who can help design a well-planned diet that can meet all the nutritional needs.
^ Davis, John (June 1, 2011). "The Vegetus Myth". VegSource. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. Vegetarian can equally be seen as derived from the late Latin 'vegetabile' – meaning plant – as in Regnum Vegetabile / Plant Kingdom. Hence vegetable, vegetation – and vegetarian. Though others suggest that 'vegetable' itself is derived from 'vegetus'. But it's very unlikely that the originators went through all that either – they really did just join 'vegetable+arian', as the dictionaries have said all along.

Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."[220]
Nuts. It’s very easy to eat until the nuts are gone, regardless of how full you are. A tip: According to science, salted nuts are harder to stop eating than unsalted nuts. Salted nuts tempt you to more overeating. Good to know. Another tip: Avoid bringing the entire bag to the couch, preferably choose a small bowl instead. I often eat all the nuts in front of me, whether I’m hungry or not.

A number of medieval rabbis (e.g., Joseph Albo and Isaac Arama) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal because the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits. Many modern rabbis, by contrast, advocate vegetarianism or veganism primarily because of concerns about animal welfare, especially in light of the traditional prohibition on causing unnecessary "pain to living creatures" (tza'ar ba'alei hayyim).[187] 

Make sure that everything you're eating is whole — as in nothing processed or packaged. Since salt is a preservative, these are the foods that are highest in sodium — something to keep in mind when planning your meals. Plan on making sure that all items you choose are fresh. That means filling up on fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein.
My diet is personally about 70 percent plants and 30 percent animal-derived foods. I usually consume about 70 percent raw plant-based foods, and 30 percent of my diet is organic grass-fed beef, organic pastured dairy, wild-caught fish (wild-caught salmon is my favorite), and free-range organic poultry and eggs. I’ve tried a number of diets, including vegetarian, vegan and pescatarian, and have found I really feel the best following this ratio. I call this ratio the healing foods diet and have also found this to have the best results with my patients, as well. Here’s the new, updated healing foods shopping list so you can have an extensive food guide to follow. If it’s on the list, it’s good to go.
The main advantage of the low-carb diet is that it causes you to want to eat less. Even without counting calories most overweight people eat far fewer calories on low carb. Sugar and starch may increase your hunger, while avoiding them may decrease your appetite to an adequate level. If your body wants to have an appropriate number of calories you don’t need to bother counting them. Thus: Calories count, but you don’t need to count them.

The simplest definition of vegetarianism is a diet free of meat, fish, and fowl flesh. But eating habits of vegetarians cover a wide spectrum. At one end are lacto-ovo vegetarians, who avoid animal flesh but eat eggs and milk products. At the other end are vegans, who forgo eating (and often wearing) all animal-based products, including honey. Raw foodists are vegans who eat mainly raw fruits, vegetables, legumes, sprouts, and nuts.

You already know that a perfect diet doesn't exist, but many of us still can't resist the urge to kick ourselves when we indulge, eat too much, or get thrown off course from restrictive diets. The problem: This only makes it more difficult, stressful, and downright impossible to lose weight. So rather than beating yourself up for eating foods you think you shouldn't, let it go. Treating yourself to about 200 calories worth of deliciousness each day — something that feels indulgent to you — can help you stay on track for the long-haul, so allow yourself to eat, breathe, and indulge. Food should be joyful, not agonizing!

There is some scientific legitimacy to today’s lower-carb diets: Large amounts of simple carbohydrates from white flour and added sugar can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and lead to weight gain. While avoiding sugar, white rice, and white flour, however, you should eat plenty of whole-grain breads and brown rice. One Harvard study of 74,000 women found that those who ate more than two daily servings of whole grains were 49 percent less likely to be overweight than those who ate the white stuff. Eating whole grains is not only one of many great ways to lose weight; it can also make you smarter.


As funny as it sounds, sleep deprivation may make you fat — and not just because you're susceptible to cases of the late-night munchies (although there's that too). There's tons of research that demonstrates getting less than the desired amount — about 7 hours — of sleep per night can slow down your metabolism. Plus, when you're awake for longer, you're naturally more likely to nosh. So don't skimp on your ZZZs, and you'll be rewarded with an extra edge when it comes to shedding pounds quickly.

 'Kosher Gelatin Marshmallows: Glatt Kosher and "OU-Pareve",' an article that appeared in Kashrus Magazine, explains the distinctions. A quote from the article is as follows: '...since the gelatin product is from hides or bones—not real flesh—and has undergone such significant changes, it is no longer considered 'fleishig' (meat) but 'pareve', and can be eaten with dairy products.' [...] Rennet is like gelatin in the sense that it's a common food additive but the foods containing it are often considered vegetarian.
There is some scientific legitimacy to today’s lower-carb diets: Large amounts of simple carbohydrates from white flour and added sugar can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and lead to weight gain. While avoiding sugar, white rice, and white flour, however, you should eat plenty of whole-grain breads and brown rice. One Harvard study of 74,000 women found that those who ate more than two daily servings of whole grains were 49 percent less likely to be overweight than those who ate the white stuff. Eating whole grains is not only one of many great ways to lose weight; it can also make you smarter.

You can eat twice as much pasta salad loaded with veggies like broccoli, carrots, and tomatoes for the same calories as a pasta salad sporting just mayonnaise. Same goes for stir-fries, omelets, and other veggie-friendly dishes. If you eat a 1:1 ratio of grains to veggies, the high-fiber veggies will help satisfy your hunger before you overeat the grains. Bonus: Fiber is highly beneficial for preventing constipation, which can make you look bloated.

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