A 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries.[113] The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be 0.82, vegetarians to be 0.84, occasional meat eaters (eat meat less than once per week) to be 0.84. Regular meat eaters had the base mortality rate of 1.0, while the number for vegans was very uncertain (anywhere between 0.7 and 1.44) due to too few data points. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: "...vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease than non-vegetarians, but no associations of a vegetarian diet with other major causes of death were established".[113]
At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls".[223] Catherine Collins of the British Dietetic Association has dismissed this as a "statistical fluke" given that it is actually the male's genetic contribution which determines the sex of a baby.[223]
Some antidepressant medications can cause weight gain, especially the older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) such as Tryptizol, Saroten, and Clomipramine; as well as newer drugs such as Remeron (Mirtazapine). Lithium (for manic-depressive disorder) often causes weight gain. The most common antidepressants known as SSRI’s (for example Citalopram and Sertraline) usually don’t impact weight significantly. More on depression
To make sure you’re getting enough healthy fats, include at least one of the following in each main meal: nuts and seeds (like almonds, walnuts, hemp, chia or flax), avocado, olive oil, coconut oil or coconut cream/milk, and butter or ghee if you include dairy products. Even if your diet is overall low in fat, try to still get about 20 percent or more of your daily calories from healthy sources of fat.
The final possible culprit behind stubborn weight issues may be the stress hormone, cortisol. Too much cortisol will increase hunger levels, bringing along subsequent weight gain. The most common cause of elevated cortisol is chronic stress and lack of sleep (see tip #10), or cortisone medication (tip #9). It’s a good idea to try your best to do something about this.
^ Jump up to: a b c Davis, John. "History of Vegetarianism: Extracts from some journals 1842–48 – the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian'". International Vegetarian Union. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. In 1841 the [Alcott House] was re-invented as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College though the building remained 'Alcott House'. Also in 1841 they began printing and publishing their own pamphlets, which now seem to be lost, but we have the relevant extracts, with the earliest known use of 'vegetarian', from their first journal which began in December 1841[.]
Similarly, children under age 5 who are reared on vegetarian and vegan diets can suffer impaired growth. That's because of the potential for a vitamin B12 deficiency, which can also result in anemia and vitamin D deficiency which can cause rickets. DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid found mostly in fish, is important for optimal brain development the first 2 years of life. Consult a registered dietitian who can help design a well-planned diet that can meet all the nutritional needs.
You can eat twice as much pasta salad loaded with veggies like broccoli, carrots, and tomatoes for the same calories as a pasta salad sporting just mayonnaise. Same goes for stir-fries, omelets, and other veggie-friendly dishes. If you eat a 1:1 ratio of grains to veggies, the high-fiber veggies will help satisfy your hunger before you overeat the grains. Bonus: Fiber is highly beneficial for preventing constipation, which can make you look bloated.
This drug is an injected variant of a satiety hormone called GLP-1. It slows down how quickly the stomach empties and tells the brain that you don’t need to eat yet – a great idea for losing weight. As a bonus this drug works fine while one is on the keto diet and it works even better with intermittent fasting – for a rapid weight loss with no hunger.
You already know that a perfect diet doesn't exist, but many of us still can't resist the urge to kick ourselves when we indulge, eat too much, or get thrown off course from restrictive diets. The problem: This only makes it more difficult, stressful, and downright impossible to lose weight. So rather than beating yourself up for eating foods you think you shouldn't, let it go. Treating yourself to about 200 calories worth of deliciousness each day — something that feels indulgent to you — can help you stay on track for the long-haul, so allow yourself to eat, breathe, and indulge. Food should be joyful, not agonizing!
Dairy products contain varying amounts of lactose (milk sugar), which slows down weight loss. What’s more, part of the protein in milk generates a significant insulin response, which can have the same effect. Consequently, cutting back on dairy products may accelerate weight loss. This applies especially to dairy products typically lacking in fat, such as regular milk and various yogurts, but be careful with full-fat dairy such as cream and cheese all the same. And don’t forget whey protein powder, which is pure milk protein.
However, after fasting people often report a positive, healthy change in their diet and lifestyle and thus it can be a springboard in the right direction. Remember for permanent weight loss, you need to adopt a permanent lifestyle change: lowered fat intake, increased intake of unrefined foods (it will fill you up, with minimal calories), decreased consumption of refined foods, drink plenty of water whilst cutting down on other liquids, exercise and get more sleep. Simple and logical! It’s not rocket science. Simply, hard graft, determination and self-discipline!
^ Datta, P. T. Jyothi (September 4, 2001). "Health goes dotty with brown eggs & green milk". Hindu Business Line. New Delhi: Kasturi & Sons (published September 5, 2001). Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2018. For discerning consumers, a recent Health Ministry notification had made it mandatory for packed food containing animal parts contained in a box, to sport a brown dot prominently on its label.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian (1903) The Benefits of Vegetarianism (1927) Diet for a Small Planet (1971) Moosewood Cookbook (1977) Fit for Life (1985) Diet for a New America (1987) The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) The China Study (2004) Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People (2005) Skinny Bitch (2005) Livestock's Long Shadow (2006) Eating Animals (2009) The Kind Diet (2009) Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows (2009) Eat & Run (2012) Meat Atlas (annual)

Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit, hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives (and olive oil) are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA can be obtained directly in high amounts from oily fish or fish oils. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.[95][clarification needed] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).[96][97]


Iodine is a component in thyroid hormones, which help regulate metabolism, growth and function of key organs. Vegans may not get enough iodine and may be at risk of deficiency and possibly even a goiter. In addition, foods such as soybeans, cruciferous vegetables and sweet potatoes may promote a goiter. However, just 1/4 teaspoon of iodized salt a day provides a significant amount of iodine.
Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism, usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo, such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms, or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras. Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practises involved in the raising and slaughter of animals, i.e. factory farming and the industrialisation of animal slaughter. Others still avoid meat because meat production is claimed to place a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein.
It’s stunning how often we eat out of boredom, nervousness, habit, or frustration—so often, in fact, that many of us have actually forgotten what physical hunger feels like. If you’re hankering for a specific food, it’s probably a craving, not hunger. If you’d eat anything you could get your hands on, chances are you’re truly hungry. Learn how to recognize these feelings mistaken for hunger, then find ways other than eating to express love, tame stress, and relieve boredom. But talk to your doctor if you think you’re always hungry for a medical reason. Here are 10 medical reasons you might be hungry.
Your body needs a certain amount of essential vitamins and minerals to function properly. What happens when you don’t get enough of them? What happens when you eat too little food, or when the food you eat isn’t sufficiently nutritious? Perhaps our bodies catch on and reply by increasing hunger levels. After all – if we eat more, we increase the chances of consuming enough of whatever nutrient we are lacking.
Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet,[9][42][43] as some dictionary definitions describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish,[8] or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat,[8][44] while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh.[11] In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian".[42][45] These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include:
Thirty-nine Reasons Why I Am a Vegetarian (1903) The Benefits of Vegetarianism (1927) Diet for a Small Planet (1971) Moosewood Cookbook (1977) Fit for Life (1985) Diet for a New America (1987) The Sexual Politics of Meat (1990) The China Study (2004) Raw Food Made Easy for 1 or 2 People (2005) Skinny Bitch (2005) Livestock's Long Shadow (2006) Eating Animals (2009) The Kind Diet (2009) Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows (2009) Eat & Run (2012) Meat Atlas (annual)
Don't get me wrong — exercising at any time is good for you. But evening activity may be particularly beneficial because many people's metabolism slows down toward the end of the day. Thirty minutes of aerobic activity before dinner increases your metabolic rate and may keep it elevated for another two or three hours, even after you've stopped moving. What that means for you: You're less likely to go back for seconds or thirds. Plus, it'll help you relax post meal so you won't be tempted by stress-induced grazing that can rack up calories, quickly.

A University of Vermont study found that online weight-loss buddies help you keep the weight off. The researchers followed volunteers for 18 months. Those assigned to an Internet-based weight maintenance program sustained their weight loss better than those who met face-to-face in a support group. These are 50 ways you can lose weight without a lick of exercise.


Don't get me wrong — exercising at any time is good for you. But evening activity may be particularly beneficial because many people's metabolism slows down toward the end of the day. Thirty minutes of aerobic activity before dinner increases your metabolic rate and may keep it elevated for another two or three hours, even after you've stopped moving. What that means for you: You're less likely to go back for seconds or thirds. Plus, it'll help you relax post meal so you won't be tempted by stress-induced grazing that can rack up calories, quickly.

According to research published by the Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health at Loma Linda University, people who follow a vegetarian diet or vegan diet — meaning they avoid all meat and possibly dairy, fish and eggs too — represent between 2 percent to 5 percent of the total adult population in the United States. (1) Several analyses that have compared vegetarian diets to non-vegetarian diets have found that those eating predominately plant-based diets have increased protection against health problems, including cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers, type 2 diabetes, obesity and total mortality.


If you eat milk, cheese, or yogurt, you probably get enough calcium to keep your bones strong. But if you decide to go vegan -- you don't any animal products -- you'll need other sources of calcium. These include fortified soy and almond milk and orange juice, with small amounts of calcium in seeds, nuts, and some green vegetables. People who avoid dairy products also miss out on vitamin D. Non-meat sources of vitamin D include fortified foods such as orange juice, cereals, and tofu made with calcium sulfate, and fortified milk alternatives like soy and almond milk.
^ Key, T. J.; Fraser, G. E.; Thorogood, M.; Appleby, P. N.; Beral, V.; Reeves, G.; Burr, M. L.; Chang-Claude, J.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Kuzma, J. W.; Mann, J.; McPherson, K. (September 1, 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3 Suppl): 516S–524S. doi:10.1079/phn19980006. ISSN 0002-9165. PMID 10479225.
Overconsumption of carbohydrates — One of the most common trends I’ve found from working with hundreds of vegans and vegetarians is that they tend to overconsume carbohydrates and sugars. Eating too many carbs can cause candida and yeast overgrowth, along with weight gain. There are some who have been able to find better balance, but this can take a lot of work and planning.
To make sure you’re eating enough protein and calories in general, don’t skimp on plants that offer amino acids and healthy fats. How much protein should you aim to eat each day? While it might be possible to get away with less, I personally think it’s best to divide your body weight in half and eat about that many grams of protein per day. Some of the best plant proteins include natto, spirulina, tempeh, nutritional yeast, green peas, lentils, quinoa and amaranth. 

Studies on the health effects of vegetarian diets observe heterogeneous effects on mortality. One review found a decreased overall risk of all cause mortality, cancer (except breast) and cardiovascular disease;[47] however, a meta-analysis found lower risk for ischemic heart disease and cancer but no effect on overall mortality or cerebrovascular disease.[48] Possible limitations include varying definitions used of vegetarianism, and the observation of increased risk of lung cancer mortality in those on a vegetarian diet for less than five years.[48] An analysis pooling two large studies found vegetarians in the UK have similar all cause mortality as meat eaters.[49] An older meta analysis found similar results, only finding decreased mortality in vegetarians, pescatarians, and irregular meat eaters in ischemic heart disease, but not from any other cause.[50]
To produce milk from dairy cattle, calves are separated from their mothers soon after birth and slaughtered or fed milk replacer in order to retain the cows milk for human consumption.[127] Many vegans state that this breaks the natural mother and calf bond.[127] Unwanted male calves are either slaughtered at birth or sent for veal production.[127] To prolong lactation, dairy cows are almost permanently kept pregnant through artificial insemination.[127] After about five years, once the cow's milk production has dropped, she is considered "spent" and sent to slaughter for beef and her hide. A dairy cow's natural life expectancy is about twenty years.[126]
There is some scientific legitimacy to today’s lower-carb diets: Large amounts of simple carbohydrates from white flour and added sugar can wreak havoc on your blood sugar and lead to weight gain. While avoiding sugar, white rice, and white flour, however, you should eat plenty of whole-grain breads and brown rice. One Harvard study of 74,000 women found that those who ate more than two daily servings of whole grains were 49 percent less likely to be overweight than those who ate the white stuff. Eating whole grains is not only one of many great ways to lose weight; it can also make you smarter.
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